Controlled Fusion

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The "Tokamak" controlled fusion reactors are safe with most 
using a 50-50 mix of deuterium and tritium mix.

Yes Nukes! For carbon free energy 
and pollution free power!


Controlled Fusion

What is "Controlled Fusion?"

"Controlled Fusion," as opposed to uncontrolled fusion, which vaporizes cities and people, is that controlled fusion uses magnetic fields to confine a high-temperature plasma of deuterium and tritium. 

One way to do this is to use a "tokamak" - which is a Russian word for a device that resembles a doughnut-shaped vessel wherein a strong, helical magnetic field guides the charged particles around it.  The nuclei in the plasma undergo fusion reactions that convert some of their rest mass into energy - in the same way that energy is produced by the sun. In order to overcome the mutual Coulomb repulsion experienced by the two nuclei, the plasma temperature, (T), must be extremely high - typically about 10 keV, which corresponds to about 108 K. However, the density of the plasma, n, can be relatively low at about 1020 m-3. The resulting pressure in the plasma is therefore only about one atmosphere.


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What is a Molten Salt Reactor?

A Molten Salt Reactor or "MSR" is a liquid-fueled reactors that can be used for production of electricity, actinide burning, production of hydrogen, and the production of "fissile fuels."

Electricity production and waste "burn-down" are expected to be the primary missions for the Molten Salt Reactor

Fissile, fertile, and fission isotopes are dissolved in a high-temperature molten fluoride salt with a very high boiling point (1,400 C) that is both the reactor fuel and the coolant. The near-atmospheric-pressure molten fuel salt flows through the reactor core.

Traditional Molten Salt Reactor designs have a graphite core that results in a thermal to epithermal neutron spectrum.

In the core of the Molten Salt Reactor is where fission occurs - within the flowing molten salt which is the "fuel" and is heated to approximately 700° C., after which it flows into a primary heat exchanger where the heat is transferred to a secondary molten salt coolant.  The fuel salt then flows back to the reactor core. The clean salt in the secondary heat transport system transfers the heat from the primary heat exchanger to a high-temperature Brayton cycle which converts the heat energy into electricity. The Brayton cycle may use either nitrogen or helium as a working gas.


The picture above from the Department of Energy (

Yes Nukes!

Energy Cheaper and Cleaner than Coal Through
Liquid Fluoride Reactors

Imagine, energy that is both cheaper than coal and cleaner than coal - and can solve more problems than just global warming.

The Liquid Fluoride Reactor - also known as Liquid Fluoride Thorium Reactor or "LFTR." is an alternative energy source that is not well known to the public. The LFTR uses inexpensive thorium as a fuel, which is transformed to uranium-233 and through nuclear fission, generates heat and power at a cost far less than coal fired power plants.

Environmental Concerns

The rising cost of energy and threat of climate change is a concern to many. The US annually imports over $400 billion of oil from foreign suppliers - many from countries whose governments that are not friendly to the U.S.

Global warming and climate change has been linked to melting glaciers which provides fresh water to millions of people.

Global warming and climate change has been linked to the ice melt in both the Arctic and Antarctic - where much of the ocean's algae is produced and provides the foundation of the ocean's food chain.

Global warming and climate change is linked to deforestation and desertification - causing further losses of fresh water supplies.

Global warming and climate change has been linked to declining food/crop production.

Fisheries are collapsing - some fish such as tuna, cod, swordfish facing extinction.

24,000 people in the US die annually from particulate emissions from
coal fired power plants.

Global Population

The global population contributes to demand on finite resources. The world's population of almost 7 billion people is growing and leading to competition for dwindling food, water, and energy resources that may lead to famine, plague and eventually wars and world war.

The US and other industrialized nations' birth rates are stable and even declining - and less than the population replacement rates. Countries that are prosperous are more sustainable.

Global prosperity depends on energy. Carbon Free Energy and Pollution Free Power from Clean Power Generation plants and renewable energy technologies are far superior than any fossil fuel as well as nuclear (fue) better for all living things and a healthy planet. And global prosperity will thrive when Carbon Free Energy is generated from technologies that are "cheaper than coal."

Electrical energy provides power for clean water supplies, sanitation, lighting, refrigeration, cooking, communications, healthcare/hospitals and schools/education. It has been shown that when a country has at least 2,000 kwh per year/per capita, that there is prosperity for the people in that country and the population stabilizes. The U.S. generates approximately
12,000 kWh per year, per household.

Economists study the relationship between the economic damage from carbon taxes (Cap and Trade) against the economic damage done from greenhouse gas emissions and anthropogenic climate change. Raising the carbon tax too fast will damage the economy. Europe’s $50 billion Cap and Trade has not yet reversed emissions growth of greenhouse gas emissions. And, developing nations will not accept carbon taxes that limit their economic growth.

Even global warming contrarians can support the economic benefits of energy that is cheaper than coal.

Liquid Fluoride Reactor solves many of the problems highlighted above by:

• Generating
Carbon Free Energy and Pollution Free Power at costs that are "cheaper than coal."

• Generating power with zero greenhouse gas emissions.

• Enabling populations of developing nations to afford the energy they need for sustainable growth and smaller, sustainable populations.

The History of the
Liquid Fluoride Reactor

Liquid Fluoride Reactor uses inexpensive and abundant thorium as its fuel. Thorium is transformed into uranium-233 which generates heat and power via nuclear fission.

The thorium and uranium are dissolved in molten salt which simplifies fueling and waste removal when compared to today's nuclear power plants.

Environmental LFTR Advantages

Liquid Fluoride Reactor generate Carbon Free Energy and Pollution Free Power at costs that are cheaper than coal.

This would cause the closings of coal fired power plants and the end of their dumping of millions of tons of greenhouse gas emissions into our atmosphere every year..... not to mention their hundreds of thousands of tons of mercury emissions they are dumping into our environment that is poisoning our planet and all living things.

2. Liquid Fluoride Reactor produce less hazardous waste than coal or other forms of nuclear energy and the radioactive waste from Liquid Fluoride Reactor lasts 1/100th the time of nuclear waste from today's nuclear power plants.

3. Ending the pollution from
coal fired power plants and associated coal particulates would save 24,000 lives annually in the US and thousands of people in China and the rest of the world.

4. The fuel used in Liquid Fluoride Reactor is inexhaustible and inexpensive. 

One ton of thorium costs $100,000 and is enough to generate 1 GW electricity per year - which would be all the power a city the size of San Francisco needs.

Technical Advantages of
Liquid Fluoride Reactors:

1. have no refueling outages, with continuous automated refueling and continuous automated waste fission product removal.

2. can change power output to satisfy electric demand, for both baseload
coal fired power plants and nuclear power plants and replace entirely expensive natural gas "peaker" plants.

3. operate at high temperature for 50% thermal/electrical conversion efficiency, thus needing only half of the cooling required by today's
coal fired power plants and nuclear power plants cooling towers.

4. are air cooled, critical for the West and Southwest U.S. as well as many developing countries where water is scarce.

5. have low capital costs because they do not need massive pressure vessels or containment domes. 

Liquid Fluoride Reactor have compact heat exchangers and utilize Brayton Cycle turbines, their cooling requirements are halved and safety is increased, when compared with today's nuclear power plants.

6. A new
Liquid Fluoride Reactor will cost $200 million for a 100 MW power plant which means they are affordable.

7. Liquid Fluoride Reactor can also make hydrogen fuel for helping develop the hydrogen economy.

Liquid Fluoride Reactor is intrinsically safe because overheating expands the fuel salt past criticality. 

Liquid Fluoride Reactor fuel is not pressurized and because total loss of power or control will allow a freeze-plug to melt, gravitationally draining all fuel salt into a dump tray, where it cools convectively.

9. 100% of
Liquid Fluoride Reactor thorium fuel is burned, compared to 0.7% of uranium burned in today's nuclear reactors.

10. are proliferation resistant, because their U-233 fuel also contains U-232 decay products that emit strong gamma radiation, hazardous to any bomb builders who might somehow seize control of the power plant for the many months necessary needed to extract uranium.

11.  plutonium and other actinides remain in the salt until it is fissioned - unlike today's solid fuel reactors, which must refuel long before these long-lived radiotoxic elements are consumed, because of radiation and thermal stress damage to the zirconium-encased solid fuel rods.

12. No plutonium or other fissionable material is ever isolated or transported to or from the
Liquid Fluoride Reactor 

Liquid Fluoride Reactor Challenges

There is almost no political awareness of the thorium/uranium fuel cycle.

James Hansen, the well-known climate scientist from NASA and Columbia professor, recommends and supports the deployment of Liquid Fluoride Reactor technology for generating "carbon free energy."

At present, there is no R&D support or funding for Liquid Fluoride Reactor.

R&D is needed now for supporting Liquid Fluoride Reactor technology.

The Nuclear Regulatory Commission would need to learn Liquid Fluoride Reactor technology in order to license and regulate it.


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